If you don’t have the right levels of thyroid hormones, your body won’t work properly . For our body to function properly it is very important to have the proper concentrations of hormones T3 and T4. When these are not adequate, we speak of a thyroid dysfunction .

Thyroid dysfunctions

If the thyroid gland is underactive , it does not produce sufficient amounts of thyroid hormones and the metabolic processes are slower so the body slows down and hypothyroidism is said to exist.


The hypothyroidism is the most common disease of the thyroid gland. The most common symptoms are: weakness, muscle cramps, tiredness, drowsiness, psychomotor retardation, memory impairment, poor concentration, forgetfulness, moodiness, irritability, deafness, depression, weight gain due to fluid retention, infertility, constipation , dysphonia, nervousness, alterations in menstrual cycles, heavy periods, decreased heartbeat, intolerance to cold, cold, dry, rough and rough skin, often with the appearance of a yellowish color due to the accumulation of carotenes, dry hair, fall hair related, swelling of the eyelids and face, hoarseness and persistent cough or pharyngitis.


If, on the other hand, there is too much thyroid hormone in the blood, the body works faster. We would be facing a case of hyperthyroidism.

The most frequent symptoms of hyperthyroidism are: nervousness, weakness, increased sweating, heat intolerance, palpitations, insomnia , weight loss, diarrhea, hand tremors, fatigue, excessive sweating , eye discomfort, anxiety, in women, may occur. scanty or absent menstruation (amenorrhea). Skin and eye manifestations may also appear.

Finally, there is talk of euthyroidism , which is when the thyroid gland functions normally, which means that there is an adequate amount of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream.

Thyroid dysfunctions often go unrecognized in many patients for a long period because the symptoms do not indicate a clear diagnosis. A period of depression, pregnancy and menopause, can mask the signs of this dysfunction. Therefore, if you experience any of these symptoms, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism , ask your doctor for a blood test. One test will be sufficient to determine the thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH level, which, in turn, may indicate any potential dysfunction.

Usual thyroid hormone levels

For informational purposes, and for the general population, we are going to indicate the usual levels of TSH in u / ml (microunits / cc) which are:

  • <0.1 or less: Probable hyperfunction.
  • (0.2 – 2.0): Strictly normal
  • (2.0 – 4.0): Stay in control
  • (4.0 – 10.0): Subclinical hypothyroidism
  • > 10.0 or greater: Clinical hypothyroidism

In the case of thyroxine, T4 , normal concentrations are between 4.5 and 12.5 ug / dl. A high amount of free T4 is a sign of thyroid hyperfunction and vice versa, but the normality of free T4 does not guarantee a state without alterations.

For your peace of mind, we will tell you that the treatment of thyroid disorders is well established and highly effective, to do this, turn to your endocrinologist as soon as possible.

Causes of thyroid dysfunctions

  • Lack of iodine in the diet (goiter)
  • Immune system diseases
  • Thyroid infections (thyroiditis)
  • Thyroid nodules
  • And in a minimal percentage to diseases caused by tumors.

We invite you to read our article: 10 Signs that you have a thyroid problem and how to improve its function

By Dr. Eric Jackson

Dr. Eric Jackson provides primary Internal Medicine care for men and women and treats patients with bone and mineral diseases, diabetes, heart conditions, and other chronic illnesses.He is a Washington University Bone Health Program physician and is a certified Bone Densitometrist. Dr. Avery is consistently recognized in "The Best Doctors in America" list.

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