The sense of sight is one or perhaps the most important of the five senses and the one that is used the most, since since we wake up we open our eyes and make use of sight to function in all activities, then it could be said that people are highly dependent on this sense.

The sense of sight is given largely thanks to the eye which acts as a receptor organ where an electro-chemical process occurs internally, which is then transported in the form of impulses to the brain.

This process begins with the reception of light which passes through the pupil, which is the part of the eye in charge of regulating the passage of light that is received by the retina in the form of light stimuli by its receptor cells, the cones and Canes.

The role of the retina is fundamental since it will depend on how the information reaches the brain. Once the light is captured by the retina, the impulses are transported to the brain through the optic nerve that clearly acts as a bridge between the retina and the brain where the information will be processed by the visual cortex, hypothalamus and the occipital lobe to transport information in images in a matter of milliseconds.

Eye composition

There are also a series of components of the eye that are responsible for its protection and maintenance, such as the crystalline that acts as a focusing lens, allowing greater or lesser sharpness, adapting its shape from concave to convex.

The ciliary body is the tissue that surrounds the lens and allows it to maintain its shape and change the size of the pupil, it also secretes aqueous humor which is a transparent liquid that is found in the area between the cornea and the lens and is It is responsible for keeping the cornea convex and putting pressure on it.

Another that fulfills a similar function is the vitreous humor which is a gelatinous liquid that is found in almost the entire eyeball and maintains its round shape.

The iris is the pigmented circle that together with the pupil fulfills the function of regulating the amount of light that passes allowing the pupil to dilate, another that fulfills a similar function is the sclera, which is the white membrane that surrounds the iris and helps to regulate the amount of light and find the muscles that move the eyeball.

The cornea is a transparent tissue that covers the eye where 80% of the refraction of light is carried out and in addition to protecting the intraocular content from external factors and the choroids is a dark membrane that is located between the sclera and the retina and is responsible for nourishing the retina through its blood vessels.

It is also important to emphasize that the eyelids, eyebrows and eyelashes play an important role in protecting the eyes against external agents such as dust particles that can damage the surface of the eye and therefore affect the performance of our vision.

Both the eyebrows and eyelashes help to trap most of these particles and the eyelid acts as the last protective barrier, hermetically closing the eye and fulfilling an important function at bedtime.

Vision care tips 

Because it is such a small and delicate organ, it needs certain care so that it can be used to its full capacity since we depend on it to carry out the vast majority of our activities. For this, the following tips have been framed for its care:

  1. Visit the ophthalmologist or optometrist at least once a year so no problems have been detected.
  2. Keep your eyes hydrated with drops prescribed by an ophthalmologist, especially if you work or live in a very dry environment or suffer from dry eye syndrome .
  3. Eat a balanced diet where vitamins A and C essential for sight are ingested, such as carrots, asparagus and dairy.
  4. Try not to strain your eyes , for example, do not read in places with poor lighting and avoid being too close to the monitor.
  5. After a working day in front of a monitor, it is recommended to take breaks of between 10 to 20 minutes.
  6. In case of being affected by dirt directly to the face, clean it immediately.
  7. During the day wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from UV rays.
  8. In case of wearing glasses, always keep them in good condition since they are part of your life and it is harmful in the long term.
  9. Use an anti-reflective coating on the glasses to allow all available light to pass through.
  10. Carry a microfiber cloth at all times to keep your glasses clean.

By Dr. Eric Jackson

Dr. Eric Jackson provides primary Internal Medicine care for men and women and treats patients with bone and mineral diseases, diabetes, heart conditions, and other chronic illnesses.He is a Washington University Bone Health Program physician and is a certified Bone Densitometrist. Dr. Avery is consistently recognized in "The Best Doctors in America" list.

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