The heart is the body’s pump, whose function is to maintain the constant and permanent flow of blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to all cells of the human body and carries waste products and CO 2 to the lungs, kidneys, liver. and colon, for elimination.

For the heart to function, it requires a stage of muscle relaxation, in which its chambers fill with blood and then a stage of muscle contraction, which is what allows the expulsion or mobilization of blood and extracellular fluid throughout the body.

Multiple diseases affect the length and frequency of this cycle. For what is known as diseases that cause cardiac arrhythmia .

What is a cardiac arrhythmia

A cardiac arrhythmia is the alteration in the speed of conduction of electrical impulses generated in the heart. This can be increased, slowed down or generated in a disorderly way in more than one place.

The contraction and relaxation of the heart happens at preset time intervals, which is known as the heart rate. Roughly to simplify the electrophysiology of the heart, the cardiac cycle has two phases diastole (relaxation) and systole (contraction), one preceding the other and must have concluded before the next cycle begins, this is called the heart rhythm. .

10 diseases that cause cardiac arrhythmia

A cardiac arrhythmia is when the relaxation and contraction cycle is interrupted or one begins before the other ends and they lose synchrony.

1. Coronary heart disease and coronary heart attacks

When the heart suffers a heart attack, the affected cells die and are replaced by fibrous or scar tissue, this tissue does not allow the transmission or passage of electrical impulses, creating areas susceptible to rhythm disturbances or foci of cardiac arrhythmia.

During the episode of a heart attack, the heart muscle moves abnormally, considerably increasing the chances of developing arrhythmias.

2. Coronary atherosclerosis

The obstruction of the arteries of the heart by atherosclerosis cholesterol plaques causes a decrease in blood flow. What can generate irregular contraction of the wall of the heart muscle that triggers cardiac arrhythmia.

3. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

This is a congenital disease (one is born with it), in which the patient is born with an accessory pathway, or an additional pathway of conduction of electrical impulses, which generates cardiac arrhythmia.

4. High blood pressure

The increase in blood pressure or hypertension causes the heart to work harder, therefore its muscular walls thicken and this thickening slows down the conduction time, favoring the appearance of cardiac arrhythmia.

5. Atrial fibrillation

The heartbeat must originate in an area called the synodal node and from there travel in an orderly fashion throughout the heart.

In atrial fibrillation, other tissues of the atrium or areas of the heart take control of the conduction and generation of the heartbeat, producing asynchronous, disorganized contractions, which trigger a cardiac arrhythmia.

6. Hyperthyroidism

When the thyroid gland is working excessively or secreting an increased amount of the hormone thyroxine, it is called hyperthyroidism .

This hormone accelerates all the metabolic functions of the body, generating an increase in the frequency of contraction of the heart or tachycardia, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias that can be fatal.

7. Hypothyroidism

When the thyroid gland works less than normal, it secretes less tyrosine, producing a slowdown in metabolism, a decrease in heart rate and a slight decrease in cardiac contractility, which leads to cardiac arrhythmia.

8. Lyme disease

The Lyme disease is caused by the bite of an infected tick with Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, or any of the three subtypes.

When this bacterium infects the heart, it produces Carditis or inflammation of the heart muscle, causing a blockage in the conduction of electrical impulses in the heart. The cardiac arrhythmia of Lyme disease occurs in only 1% of patients with Lyme and usually recovers after 21 days when properly treated.

9. Chagas disease

Disease Chagas disease is transmitted by the bite of an insect called chipo or bug (reduviid or triatomine) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite enters the bloodstream and , once in contact with the cells of the heart grows and multiplies until cells dilate and make them lose their conduction functions, causing cardiac arrhythmia and heart dilation,

10. Dehydration and hypokalemia

The loss of electrolytes that accompany dehydration, particularly the decrease in the potassium level in cardiac cells and in the blood, produces the appearance of cardiac arrhythmia. Also its increase as well as variations in the concentration of sodium or calcium.

By Dr. Eric Jackson

Dr. Eric Jackson provides primary Internal Medicine care for men and women and treats patients with bone and mineral diseases, diabetes, heart conditions, and other chronic illnesses.He is a Washington University Bone Health Program physician and is a certified Bone Densitometrist. Dr. Avery is consistently recognized in "The Best Doctors in America" list.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *